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List of Common Childhood Cancers and Tumors

Cancer is one of the leading cause of death in Children. There are many forms of cancers. I have made a list of common cancers in children. It is a important topics for medical students and doctors preparing for postgraduaion.

Its almost after 1 year, i am writing here. I have competed my Internship from Rajshahi Medical College last year. After that I left Rajshahi and Dhaka is my new address. I live in Shahbag Aziz Housing Complex. Its like a “home of Doctors”. Its near the BSMMU. Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University is the first and only medical university in Bangladesh. It was previously known as PG Hospital. The reason to stay here is the Library facility offered by BSMMU. My achievement in this year is FCPS part 1 in Paediatrics. I appeared in MD Residency entrance exam in Neonatology but couldn’t pass. FCPS is a Degree offered by the Bangladesh College of Physicians and Surgeons (BCPS). So this is the short introduction after a year.

Common childhood brain cancers

In 2014, it is estimated that 15,780 children and adolescents ages 0 to 19 years will be diagnosed with cancer and 1,960 will die of the disease in the United States (Source). Neoplasm that exhibit sharp peaks in incidence in children younger than age 10 years includes:

  1. Leukemia especially Acute Lymphoblastic leukemia.
  2. Lymphoma
  3. Brain and central nervous system tumors.
  4. Neuroblastoma
  5. Hepatoblastoma.
  6. Nephroblastoma or Wilms tumour.
  7. Retinoblastoma
  8. Sarcoma including Rhabdomyosarcoma
  9. Primary bone cancers including Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma.
  10. Teratoma.

So these are the basic 10 types of cancer in children.

Common Childhood Cancers

I find the above picture very inspiring. That beautiful smile, you can not forget. I can’t find the original source. Link of the big size image.

Leukemia:

Leukemia is the cancer of bone marrow and blood. It accounts for almost 30% of all cancers in children. The most common types in children are acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML). They are usually chemotherapy sensitive.

Lymphoma

Lymphoma is the cancer of certain cells of Immune system named by Lymphocyte. They usually grow in lymph node and other primary and secondary lymphoid organs. Primary lymphoid organs are Bone marrow and Thymus. Secondary lymphoid organs are Tonsils, Lymph node etc.

Brain and central nervous system tumors:

Brain tumors are the most common form of solid tumors among children under the age of 15 and represent about 20% of all childhood cancers. Brain tumors can arise in any types of cells and any location. They are most frequent in lower part of Brain or posterior fossa like Cerebellum and brain stem. Most childhood brain and spine tumors are primary tumors, meaning they originated in the brain or spine. They are classified as Benign and Malignant. The importqance of Brain tumor depends upon the location of tumor, not the type. So both can be dangerous.

List of Common Childhood brain Cancers
List of Common Childhood brain Cancers

Types of Brain Tumor:

  • Gliomas: glioblastoma, astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, ependymoma, brain stem glioma, optic glioma.
  • Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs): Medulloblastomas, Pineoblastomas, medulloepitheliomas, ependymoblastomas.
  • Craniopharyngiomas.
  • Mixed glial and neuronal tumors
  • Choroid plexus tumors
  • Schwannomas (neurilemmomas)
  • Meningiomas
  • Neuroblastomas
  • Germ cell tumors

Neuroblastoma

Neuroblastoma is the tumor of nerve cells found in embryo. It the tumor of Neural crest cells derivatives. Neural crest cells derive from Ectoderm. It is usually occurs in Abdomen specially Adrenal Medulla.

Hepatoblastoma

It is the cancer of Liver cells. They usually present with an abdominal mass. The disease is most commonly diagnosed during a child’s first three years of life.

Nephroblastoma

Also known as Wilms tumor is the tumor of Kidney. It is named after Dr Max Wilms, the German surgeon who first described it. It is uncommon after 6 years of age. Usually present as Abdominal swelling.

Retinoblastoma

Retinoblastoma is the tumor of eye. It is also uncommon after 6 years of age. The child’s eye looks white or pink.

Sarcoma

Soft tissue tumors in children can appear in muscle, fat, fibrous tissue, blood vessels, tendons, connective tissues, or other supporting tissues of the body. Rhabdomyosarcoma tumors arise from primitive muscle cell. It is the most common type of sarcoma.

Primary bone cancers

Primary bone cancers means they are originated in Bone. Metastatic bone cancers means they are originated in others places and later metastasize to bone. Primary bone tumors are common in older children. Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are two main types of bone cancer.

Teratoma

A teratoma is a tumor with tissue or organ components resembling normal derivatives of more than one germ layer. A teratoma will contain no organs but rather one or more tissues normally found in organs such as the brain, thyroid, liver, and lung.

Its all for now. Thanks for reading.

Important Links:

www.cancer.org

Cancer in Children and Adolescents

TYPES OF CHILDHOOD CANCER

Top 5 Pediatric Cancers: The Warning Signs


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3 comments

  1. If a tumor develops in the brain many essential basic abilities, such asspeaking power, memory, and movement power, may be got damaged.
    A tumor that arises in the spinal cord or brain is called a primary tumor. There are more than 100 types of primary brain tumors. Some can be cured with very little treatment where others cannot be cured even when treated very aggressively.
    We should need to take proper step at early stage of tumor. Anyway ,thanks for your nice sharing

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