Hello Dear Readers, I hope you are all well. Today I will discuss the vaccine. An under-developed country like us has made Vaccination programme to eradicate some communicable infectious vaccine-preventable diseases. There are some bacterial and viral diseases which can be prevented by using vaccines. I will discuss thoroughly, If you have any questions please let me know in the comment sections below.
What is The Vaccine?
Simply, the vaccine gives us immunity against disease. It’s a special kind of antigenic substances which provides active immunity to that particular disease. The vaccine is made from particular microbes, killed or weakened or its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. It’s like you are telling your body, who is your enemy. Your body will be prepared.
Remember, Small Pox? A notorious virus that has killed millions of people worldwide. Thanks to the vaccine, now it is eradicated.
Polio is also going to be eradicated soon. Bangladesh is now polio-free, Thanks to WHO. The Extended Program on Immunization (EPI) began in 1979 in Bangladesh. The routine administration of oral polio vaccine (OPV) started in 1985. In the year 1993 Government of Bangladesh endorsed TT5 dose schedule for women of childbearing age from 15 to 45 years age and later extend o 15 to 49 years age.
What are the Vaccine Preventable Diseases?
Here is a list of vaccines recommended for all children age group 0-6 years.
Bacteria against which vaccines are available.
- Streptococcus pneumoniae
- Neisseria meningitidis
- Haemophilus influenzae
- Salmonella typhi
- Corynebacterium diphtheriae
- Clostridium tetani
- Bordetella pertussis
- Bacillus anthracis
- Mycobacterium bovis
- Francisella tularensi – Tularemia
- Vibrio cholerae
- Yersinia pestis
- Rickettsia rickettsiae
- Coxiella burneti
- Hepatitis A
- Hepatitis B
- Rota virus
- Human Papilloma
- Yellow fever
- Japanese Enchephalitis
The list is quite big, but you don’t need all of them. Some of them are given in special situations. Like if you are coming from USA or Europe to Indian subcontinent you should probably take Typhoid and Hepatitis A vaccine.
EPI schedule has 10 preventable diseases vaccine. They are listed below.
- Childhood Tuberculosis
- A whooping cough
- Hepatitis B
- Hemophilus Influenza type Meningitis, Pneumonia
- Pneumococcal Pneumonia
- 0-11 Months old all babies
- 15th-Month-old babies
- 15 years old all girls
- 15-49 years all child-bearing females.
EPI Vaccination Schedule in Bangladesh 2018
Vaccination schedule for age group from 15 years of age
Oral Polio vaccine should be given after birth or within 14 days of birth. It is counted as Zero dose. The regular OPV vaccine schedule is counted from 42nd days or 6th week of age.
There should be a BCG scar in the upper part of the left arm where the vaccine is given. If it is not here, BCG vaccine has to be given during the 3rd dose of Pentavalent.
If there are any previous measles or rubella or any rash developed, the child should be vaccinated regularly at 9th month and 15th month.
Multiple vaccines can be taken simultaneously but at a different site.
When Is Vaccine not Given?
There are some conditions when the vaccine is not given. They are listed below.
- Immunodeficiency diseases.
- Active Measles
- Active Tuberculosis
- MR vaccine in a Pregnant woman
- If you are sick
- If your child develops convulsions after Pentavalent, no further PCV is given. Other vaccines can be given regularly.
Side Effects of Vaccination
There are some child vaccination side effects. Like a mild fever, rashes, redness, swelling etc. No major treatment is necessary. They are cured spontaneously after few days.
Vaccination Center in Dhaka?
EPIcenter provides all the above vaccine for free. You have to make a vaccine card and follow the schedule.
Most private hospitals and Chamber of Private practitioners have the vaccination corner.
EPI Vaccines are found at all Govt. healthcare facilities, EPI centers and also non-Govt. health facilities.
Vaccination is done at icddrb in Mohakhali, Dhaka at The Travellers’ Clinic for visitors and the community, including many embassies, multinational companies, NGOs etc.
Sunday to Thursday: 9:00am – 12.30pm & 2:00pm – 4:00pm (Friday and Saturday are weekends).
That’s all. If you have questions, feel free to ask.
Health topics Vaccines – WHO
EPI Fact Sheet Bangladesh [PDF]