Cancer is one of the leading cause of death in children. There are many forms of cancers. I have made a list of common cancers in children. It is an important topic for medical students and doctors preparing for postgraduation.
Its almost after 1 year, I am writing here. I have competed my Internship from Rajshahi Medical College last year. After that I left Rajshahi and Dhaka is my new address. I live in Shahbag Aziz Housing Complex. It’s like a “home of Doctors”. It’s near the BSMMU. Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University is the first and only medical university in Bangladesh. It was previously known as PG Hospital. The reason to stay here is the Library facility offered by BSMMU. My achievement in this year is FCPS part 1 in Paediatrics. I appeared in MD Residency entrance exam in Neonatology but couldn’t pass. FCPS is a Degree offered by the Bangladesh College of Physicians and Surgeons (BCPS). So this is the short introduction after a year.
Common childhood brain cancers
In 2014, it is estimated that 15,780 children and adolescents ages 0 to 19 years will be diagnosed with cancer and 1,960 will die of the disease in the United States (Source). Neoplasm that exhibits sharp peaks in incidence in children younger than age 10 years include:
- Leukemia especially Acute Lymphoblastic leukemia.
- Brain and central nervous system tumors.
- Nephroblastoma or Wilms tumor.
- Sarcoma including Rhabdomyosarcoma
- Primary bone cancers including Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma.
So these are the basic 10 types of cancer in children.
I find the above picture very inspiring. That beautiful smile, you can not forget. I can’t find the original source. Link of the big size image.
Leukemia is the cancer of bone marrow and blood. It accounts for almost 30% of all cancers in children. The most common types in children are acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML). They are usually chemotherapy-sensitive.
Lymphoma is the cancer of certain cells of the Immune system named by Lymphocyte. They usually grow in the lymph node and other primary and secondary lymphoid organs. Primary lymphoid organs are Bone marrow and Thymus. Secondary lymphoid organs are Tonsils, Lymph node, etc.
Brain and central nervous system tumors:
Brain tumors are the most common form of solid tumors among children under the age of 15 and represent about 20% of all childhood cancers. Brain tumors can arise in any types of cells and any location. They are most frequent in the lower part of Brain or posterior fossae like Cerebellum and brain stem. Most childhood brain and spine tumors are primary tumors, meaning they originated in the brain or spine. They are classified as Benign and Malignant. The importance of Brain tumor depends upon the location of the tumor, not the type. So both can be dangerous.
Types of Brain Tumor:
- Gliomas: glioblastoma, astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, ependymoma, brain stem glioma, optic glioma.
- Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs): Medulloblastomas, Pineoblastomas, medulloepitheliomas, ependymoblastomas.
- Mixed glial and neuronal tumors
- Choroid plexus tumors
- Schwannomas (neurilemmomas)
- Germ cell tumors
Neuroblastoma is the tumor of nerve cells found in the embryo. It the tumor of Neural crest cells derivatives. Neural crest cells derive from Ectoderm. It usually occurs in Abdomen specially Adrenal Medulla.
It is the cancer of Liver cells. They usually present with an abdominal mass. The disease is most commonly diagnosed during a child’s first three years of life.
Also known as Wilms tumor is the tumor of the Kidney. It is named after Dr. Max Wilms, the German surgeon who first described it. It is uncommon after 6 years of age. Usually present as Abdominal swelling.
Retinoblastoma is the tumor of the eye. It is also uncommon after 6 years of age. The child’s eye looks white or pink.
Soft tissue tumors in children can appear in muscle, fat, fibrous tissue, blood vessels, tendons, connective tissues, or other supporting tissues of the body. Rhabdomyosarcoma tumors arise from primitive muscle cell. It is the most common type of sarcoma.
Primary bone cancers
Primary bone cancers mean they are originated in Bone. Metastatic bone cancers mean they are originated in other places and later metastasize to bone. Primary bone tumors are common in older children. Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are the two main types of bone cancer.
A teratoma is a tumor with tissue or organ components resembling normal derivatives of more than one germ layer. A teratoma will contain no organs but rather one or more tissues normally found in organs such as the brain, thyroid, liver, and lung.
Its all for now. Thanks for reading.