Congenital Heart Disease in Children

Congenital Heart Disease means a defect in the structure or function of the heart or great vessels. It may present from birth or may appear in childhood. Severe respiratory distress and cyanosis soon after birth which requires high flow oxygen may indicate heart defect. Sometimes prenatal diagnosis by ultrasound is possible. Surgical intervention is required in severe cases. If there are no other fetal distress, pregnancy should continue till term. It will give proper time for the growth of organs. Postnatal color doppler echocardiography can detect most heart defects. The echo is indicated when there are symptoms suggesting congenital heart disease. Symptoms include tachycardia, tachypnea, heart murmur, diminution in lower extremity pulses, etc. Pediatric Cardiac consultation is required. The doctor may refer you to a cardiothoracic surgeon for heart surgery. Most often Congenital Heart Diseases are associated with other defects. A neonatologist is required to attend the baby in a possible heart defect.

In Bangladesh incidence of congenital heart diseases was found up to 25/1000 live birth in one year in a study conducted in CMH Dhaka. The incidence of CHD is higher in preterms as compared to full-term live birth.

Most common congenital heart lesions in Bangladesh

  1. Atrial Septal Defect (ASD-26%)
  2. Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD-16.9%)
  3. Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA-18%)
  4. Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF-14%)
  5. Pulmonary Stenosis (PS-7.75%)

Source

Congenital Heart Disease

Causes of congenital heart disease:

  1. Genetic or Chromosomal problems
  2. Certain medications, alcohol or drug abuse
  3. Viral infection during pregnancy
  4. Maternal illness such as diabetes mellitus

Symptoms to look for:

  1. Shortness of breath
  2. A bluish tint to the skin, fingernails, and lips known as cyanosis
  3. poor feeding
  4. Growth retardation
  5. Poor weight gain
  6. Frequent pneumonia or lung infections
  7. Easy fatiguability

Common Investigations for Diagnosis:

  1. Chest Xray
  2. Echocardiogram
  3. Cardiac catheterization
  4. Arterial Blood Gas analysis

Classification of congenital heart disease

Acyanotic With shunt

1. Atrial septal defect
2. Ventricular septal defect
3. Patent ductus arteriosus
4. Partial anomalous venous drainage

Acyanotic Without shunt

1. Coarctation of aorta
2. Congenital aortic stenosis

Cyanotic With shunt

1. Fallot tetralogy
2. Transposition of great vessels
3. Severe abstains anomaly

Cyanotic Without shunt

1. Severe pulmonary stenosis
2. Tricuspid atresia
3. Pulmonary atresia
4. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

Pediatric Cardiology Hospital in Dhaka

National Heart Foundation of Bangladesh

Good hospital for the middle-class family in Bangladesh with minimum cost.
Address: Plot-7/2, Section-2, Mirpur, Dhaka-1216, Bangladesh
Phone: +9033442-6

Paediatric Cardiology Apollo Hospital

Complete care best for rich people and foreign guests.

Plot: 81, Block: E, Bashundhara R/A, Dhaka 1229, Bangladesh
Phone: (02) 8431661- 5
Ambulance: 01714-090000

National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases

Government hospital service is not up to the mark. Home for poor patients.

Address: Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh
Tel: +88-02-9122560-74

See hereĀ  for more:

Best Private Hospitals for Children in Dhaka With Address Phone Number

Resources:

List of congenital heart conditions – John Hopkins [better for basic understanding]

Congenital Heart Disease AAP

Congenital heart defect Wikipedia

Comprehensive Approach to Congenital Heart Defects PDF Download

The pattern of Congenital Heart Diseases and Treatment Options in a Bangladeshi Centre: Analysis of 6914 cases from Non-invasive Cardiac Laboratory PDF Download [Must for Students]

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