Neonates needs special care if they are ill. When neonates are being admitted in Hospital first the history is taken and written in a form. As I am an Intern Doctor of Rajshahi Medical College Hospital, I have received many neonatal cases. Certain points must be noted in the Admission form. Fort example, If the blood group of the baby or mother is negative, it should be highlighted. Usually Rh Negative Mother gives Birth to Rh +ve Baby. This baby needs after delivery special care.
Chief Complaints (Always with duration):
First note the chief complaints for which the baby is admitted. Note the date and time of birth with the procedure. Delayed crying after birth indicates perinatal asphyxia.
1. H\O NVD/LUCS on …….at ….. with\without delayed crying after birth.
2. Reluctant to feed and/or vomiting for …..Times.
3. H/O convulsion for ….times ……hour back
4. Abdominal distension or diarrhea for ….times.
5. Yellow discoloration of the body.
Then ask for maternal history. Any disease condition of mother would affect the health of the baby. Also note the blood group of the mother.
- Para and Gravida of the mother:
- Use of any Drugs:
- Blood type:
- Previous complications of pregnancy:
- Type of contraception used, if any:
Any Risk Factors:
- Diabetes Mellitus
- Bronchial asthma
Any history of following conditions should be noted:
1. Term/preterm baby
3. Prolong or Obstructed labor
5. Fetal distress
History and Examination of Neonate
The newborn neonate should be examined with extreme caution. Unnecessary handling should be avoided.
The weight of the neonate is very much vital and it is highlighted in the front page. Normal weight for an neonate is NO less than 2.5 Kg. See here everything about low birth weight baby.
Examination precaution: Hand should be washed with proper antiseptic. Thermal environment must be maintained during the examination. You should make your hand warm by gentle rubbing. Noise free quite environment is necessary. Total examination time should not exceed 5-10 minutes.
Apgar score is examined immediately after birth and 5 min after birth. One minute Apgar score usually predicts immediate neonatal outcome. While the 5 minutes or later Apgar score is fairly predictive of future mental prognosis of such infant.
- Appearance ( Color of the baby )
- Pulse (Heart rate )
- Grimace (reflex response)
- Activities and muscle tone
On General and Systemic Examination of Neonate:
- Appearance: Well alert/Lethargic/Unconscious/Dyspnea
- HR 100-160 normal
- RR <60 normal
- Sucking reflex
- Moro reflex
The neonate is througly examined for any congenital abnormalities.
Characteristics of New born Infant:
- Length: 50cm
- OFC: 35cm
- Colour: Pinkish
- RR: 30-60/min
- HR: 100-160/min
- Temp: 97.5-99 F
- Chest: <3 cm of OFC
- Urine: Usually pass within 24hours, but up to 72 hours is normal
- Stool: usually pass within 24 hours but up to 48 hours is normal.
There may be transitory murmur. There are ½ chance that murmur heard at birth, will present as CHD. Breathing of infant is entirely Diaphragmatic. During inspiration soft front of thorax usually draws inwards, while abdomen protrudes. Paradoxical. Liver is usually palpable 2cm below rib margin.
See here more history and examination point NORMAL NEWBORN: HISTORY AND PHYSICAL EXAM OUTLINE
Download PDF: Complete Examination of a Newborn