There are many factors that directly influence the growth and development of a child. Every parent should be aware of these points. A child needs both physical and mental support for proper growth and development. Even the word growth and development are different. Early childhood development is a crucial factor for total life. It has an effect on the whole life. So you should monitor childhood development carefully.
What is Child Growth and Development?
Growth is defined as an increase in the size of an individual due to increase in all number & size of the cells, resulting in an overall increase. This increase can be seen, appreciated & measured accurately.
Child development definition
It is the maturation of the function & acquisition of a variety of skills for functioning optimally in a society. A loving and supportive environment would help to develop confidence. There are some developing skills such as Gross and fine motor development, the capacity to speak, able to eat, draw a picture, cognitive and thinking ability, understanding and problem-solving capacity, social interaction with others, making new friends, having sympathy for others etc.
Child Growth and Development Stages
There are some certain stages for the development of child’s. Developmental milestones are an age-specific goal that should be fulfilled by a child. These are the set of abilities that children typically achieve by a certain age. As for example, Walking should be performed by a child within 12 months of age.
Child Development Guide by www.dshs.wa.gov
Factors influencing growth & development:
Certain hereditary factors influence the body formation. Tall parents have tall offspring. The genetic & chromosomal disorder also effect on the growth & development of a baby. Sometimes it is not possible to prevent the genetic factors but to take necessary care.
Nutritional deficiency considerably retards physical growth. Malnourished mother produces babies with IUGR. Overnutrition may cause obesity. So to control the nutritional requirements of mother is necessary to have a health child. This factor is neglected in our country, specially the poor families can not afford to have a proper nutrition during pregnancy. A balanced diet containing all the basic food principles such as protein, vitamins, minerals etc. According to the World Health Organization. Lack of proper nutrition can interfere with the maturation of your child’s brain and body.
3. Socio Economic Condition:
Poor socio-economic condition affects growth & development. Sanitary conditions, various parasitic morbidity, poor housing, stressful family condition, bad financial situation etc have a serious effect on Child Growth and Development. Children’s coming from adequate finances are more likely to grow and develop to optimal levels, according to the Annual Review of Psychology.
4. Environmental & seasonal
Physical, psychological, social, cultural factors & harvest seasons have a positive effect over growth & development. Download the PDF on Environmental factors influencing growth and pubertal development by www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Urbanization has a positive effect on growth. Geographical environment has a beneficial effect on Child Growth and Development.
5. Chronic diseases:
Chronic untreated diseases of heart, lungs, liver etc impair growth and development seriously. Growth Hormone Deficiency, Hypothyroidism, Cushing’s Syndrome etc medical condition that needs early attention.
6. Emotional & cultural
Trauma from unstable family, insecurity, sibling jealousy & loss of parents has effect on growth & development.
IUGR & maternal infections & diseases affect on growth & development. Maternal diabetes may result in macrosomia causing more than normal weight baby.
8. Growth potentials
The smaller the child at birth, the smaller he is likely to be in subsequent years. The larger the child at birth, the larger he is likely to be in later years.
See here for Influences Affecting Child Growth and Development